Sweeteners and their Glycemic Index

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The Glycemic Index of Sweeteners

The glycemic index (GI) is a measure of how quickly foods raise blood sugar levels.  The glycemic index for sweeteners is a function of three things:

1. The amount of carbohydrate present. 
2. The type of carbohydrate present. 
3. The presence of other substances (soluble fiber for example) that slow metabolism of carbohydrates. 

Low-GI foods have a GI value under 55, while medium-GI foods are between 51–69 and high-GI foods are over 70. High-GI foods raise blood sugar quickly because they contain sugars that are easily absorbed by the gut.

Beware of "sugar free" chocolate containing stuff equally high in GLYCEMIC INDEX (like dextrin)! ( or maltitol GI=35 )

Maltodextrin(GI=110) is an artificial carbohydrate made from starch. It has an exceptionally high GI that ranges from 85 to 135.
It is unclear what the GI is of each of the other DEXTRINS(Cyclodextrin, Amylodextrin, Beta Limit dextrin, Alpha Limit dextrin, Highly branched cyclic dextrin ) ( other than maltodextrin).

Dextrin
and polydextrin are sugars, however, they are glucose molecules linked in chains. While their absorption might be slightly slower than simple glucose, they do break down into pure glucose and can have a dramatic effect on blood sugar. It is Sugar produced from starch . . but sugar just the same.

Look for maltodextrin  in Splenda, Candy , Instant puddings, Low-fat yogurt, Sports drinks, Infant products, Salad dressings, Sweeteners (ie. "Stevia in the Raw").

Dextrose (GI=100) is the name of a simple sugar that is made from corn and is chemically identical to glucose, or blood sugar. You might find it in processed meat !

SPLENDA® is also the brand name for the ingredient sucralose(GI=0). Sucralose isn't broken down in the body, so it has zero calories. It's about 600 times sweeter than table sugar and can be used in anything. Splenda contains a relatively small amount of sucralose, virtually all of Splenda's caloric content derives from the dextrose or highly fluffed maltodextrin "bulking agents" that give Splenda its volume. Like other carbohydrates, dextrose and maltodextrin have 3.75 kcal per gram. Sucralose is made through a patented, multi-step process that starts with sugar and converts it to a no calorie, non-carbohydrate sweetener. The process selectively replaces three hydrogen-oxygen groups on the sugar molecule with three chlorine atoms.

Look for erythritol(GI=1) instead of maltitol's high gycemic index.  -- both sugar alcohols = carbohydrate.

 truvia® powder  is mostly Erythritol (GI = 1) and the rest Stevia. Stevia, itself, contains no carbohydrates and no calories and accordingly has a glycemic index of zero.

 Maltitol is a carbohydrate with calories. Our bodies do not absorb all the calories in maltitol, but it still has about 2 to 3 calories per gram, compared to 4 calories per gram of sugar. maltitol syrup has a glycemic index of 52, which is not that much better than table sugar’s glycemic index of 60. The powdered form has a glycemic index of 35, which is still higher than most other sugar alcohols . You often find instead of maltitol , - sorbitol(GI=4) or xylitol(GI=12)

 
Glycemic Index Sugar Alcohol
3 Lactitol
2

Isomalt

2

Mannitol

4 sorbitol
12

xylitol

35 maltitol
1 Erythritol
 Sugar alcohols tend to have very low GIs. In particular Erythritol has a GI of only 1, and it is a safe low calorie sweetener that occurs naturally in some fruits and mushrooms. While many of the other sugar alcohols also have low GIs they can have side effects such as abdominal cramping if taken in even moderate quantities.

 Aspartame is one of the most common artificial sweeteners in use today. It is sold under the brand names NutraSweet® and Equal®. Aspartame is made by joining together the amino acids aspartic acid and phenylalanine. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are found naturally in many foods. Aspartame is a minor source of aspartic acid, a naturally-occurring amino acid found in foods that contain protein. The artificial sweetener aspartame (Equal, NutraSweet), which is added to many medications, diet foods and diet sodas, contains phenylalanine. Federal regulations require that any food that contains aspartame bear this warning:  "Phenylketonurics: Contains phenylalanine."
An Equal sachet contains  dextrose, aspartame(1.7%), acesulfame potassium(1.2%), starch, silicon dioxide(an anti-caking agent), maltodextrin, and unspecified flavoring [2]
A Nutrasweet sachet:- dextrose with maltodextrin , aspartame

Both the natural zero calorie sweeteners such as Stevia, and the artificial ones such as Saccharin have no glycemic index. They do not raise blood sugar at all. Saccharin has been around since the late 1800s. It’s between 300 and 500 times sweeter than table sugar and best known as Sweet’N Low.
In the 1970s, saccharin got a warning label after lab tests in rats suggested a possible link to bladder cancer. "Since then, more than 30 studies demonstrated that the results found in rats were not relevant to humans, and that saccharin is safe for human consumption, ( the FDA's web site states). Saccharin no longer carries a warning label.

Glucose has a glycemic index (GI) of 100 and fructose is 25. Sucrose (Ordinary sugar) which is made up of a combination of these two has a GI of 65. For more information on Glycemic Index click here. The search for a low GI natural sugar based sweetener is somewhat futile as they all contain combinations of the above, or similar sugars.

Although fructose has a fairly low GI=25, it has other harmful effects and must be considered unsafe to take in large quantities. Agave Syrup has a low GI=15 because it is mainly fructose. Agave Syrup has been delisted and banned by the Glycemic Research Institute of Washington DC because serious side effects were observed in clinical trials.

Acesulfame potassium(GI=0) (Acesulfame K) is a calorie-free sweetener that has been used in foods and beverages around the world for 15 years. The ingredient, which is 200 times sweeter than sugar, has been used in numerous foods in the United States since 1988. ... More than 90 studies have demonstrated the safety of acesulfame potassium.

Coconut Palm Sugar contains mainly sucrose and one would expect a GI of about 65. However it scores well in the glycemic index for sweeteners list. Tests have indicated a GI of only about 35. This may be partly because of other substances in it such as soluble fiber. However, the testing was very limited. More testing may well produce a higher GI.

Yacon Syrup, scores best in the Glycemic Index (GI=1) for Sweeteners that are sugar based. It derives it's sweetness from Fructo-oligosaccharides, a type of sugar with a very low GI. It is probably the only truly raw, organic, natural, low calorie, and low glycemic sweetener available.

Monk fruit contain powerful antioxidants called mogrosides, which are metabolized differently by the body than natural sugars.  Mogrosides may stimulate insulin secretion. This may not be helpful for people whose pancreas is already overworking to make insulin. They haven’t been on the U.S. scene very long. They’re not as well studied in humans as other sweeteners. Some monk fruit sweeteners contain other sweeteners such as dextrose. Depending on how the ingredients are processed, this may make the end product less natural. This may also impact its nutritional profile.    Otherwise it has a zero glycemic index, contains no calories .

 

Glycemic Index

Sweetener

Type

110

Maltodextrin

Sugar

105

Maltose

Sugar

100

Dextrose

Sugar

100

Glucose

Sugar

70

Trehalose

Sugar

68

HFCS-42

Modified Sugar

65

Sucrose

Sugar

60

Caramel

Modified Sugar

60

Golden Syrup

Modified Sugar

60

Inverted Sugar

Modified Sugar

60

Refiners Syrup

Modified Sugar

58

HFCS-55

Modified Sugar

55

Blackstrap Molasses

Sugar Extract

54

Maple Syrup

Natural Sugar

50

Honey

Natural Sugar

50

Sorghum Syrup

Natural Sugar

45

Lactose

Sugar

43

Cane Juice

Sugar Extract

42

Barley Malt Syrup

Modified Sugar

35

HSH

Sugar Alcohol

35

Coconut Palm Sugar

Natural Sugar

35

Maltitol

Sugar Alcohol

31

HFCS-90

Modified Sugar

25

Brown Rice Syrup

Modified Sugar

25

Fructose

Sugar

25

Galactose

Sugar

15

Agave Syrup

Modified Sugar

12

Xylitol

Sugar Alcohol

5

Glycerol

Sugar Alcohol

4

Sorbitol

Sugar Alcohol

3

Lactitol

Sugar Alcohol

2

Isomalt

Sugar Alcohol

2

Mannitol

Sugar Alcohol

1

Erythritol

Sugar Alcohol

1

Yacon Syrup

Natural Sweetener

1

Oligofructose

Sugar Fiber

1

Inulin

Sugar Fiber

0

Brazzein

Natural Sweetener

0

Curculin

Natural Sweetener

0

Glycyrrhizin

Natural Sweetener

0

Luo Han Guo

Natural Sweetener

0

Miraculin

Natural Sweetener

0

Monellin

Natural Sweetener

0

Pentadin

Natural Sweetener

0

Stevia

Natural Sweetener

0

Thaumatin

Natural Sweetener

0

Acesulfame K

Artificial Sweetener

0

Alitame

Artificial Sweetener

0

Aspartame

Artificial Sweetener

0

Cyclamate

Artificial Sweetener

0

Neotame

Artificial Sweetener

0

Saccharin

Artificial Sweetener

0

Sucralose

Artificial Sweetener

Source 

The University of Sydney publishes a searchable database containing the results of glycemic testing.
Type "dextrin" into the FOOD NAME and see the GLYCEMIC LOAD of Soy Milk.

This brings up another issue: The human body is programmed to react to the taste of sweet things. Studies have shown that insulin is secreted by the pancreas soon after the sweet taste is experienced on the tongue, whether the substance contains calories or not. The body is fooled by the zero calorie sweetener. It expects glucose to hit the bloodstream and it gets none. This may result in increased appetite soon after.  Some studies have indicated that zero calorie sweeteners do not help reduce weight, and this may explain the reason. However this does not take into account several useful aspects of zero calorie sweeteners:

1. They do not cause a blood sugar spike and this alone is beneficial to health.
2. They are suitable for diabetics who would otherwise have a limited choice of sweet things.
3. They are harmless to teeth.
4. All things being equal they contain no calories and should be of assistance in a diet plan.

MarinInfo thinks sugar is as good as poison and does not agree with the following: Perhaps the best use of zero calorie sweeteners would be to reduce the sugars in food and beverages, not eliminate them. Say a person drinks a bottle of cola each day. This contains about 12.5 spoons of sugar and 200 calories. If they drank a reduced sugar cola made with half stevia or saccharin they would halve the amount of sugar, yet still receive a glucose boost. Indeed the lowering of the sugar intensity could provide a more steady supply of glucose to the bloodstream and dramatically reduce or eliminate the insulin load.

2014: Low-calorie sweeteners and body weight and composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. BACKGROUND: Replacement of caloric sweeteners with lower- or no-calorie alternatives may facilitate weight loss or weight maintenance by helping to reduce energy intake; however, past research examining low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) and body weight has produced mixed results.
OBJECTIVE:  The objective was to systematically review and quantitatively evaluate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies, separately, that examined the relation between LCSs and body weight and composition.
DESIGN: A systematic literature search identified 15 RCTs and 9 prospective cohort studies that examined LCSs from foods or beverages or LCSs consumed as tabletop sweeteners. Meta-analyses generated weighted mean differences in body weight and composition values between the LCS and control groups among RCTs and weighted mean correlations for LCS intake and these parameters among prospective cohort studies.
RESULTS: In RCTs, LCSs modestly but significantly reduced all outcomes examined, including body weight (-0.80 kg; 95% CI: -1.17, -0.43), body mass index [BMI (in kg/m˛): -0.24; 95% CI: -0.41, -0.07], fat mass (-1.10 kg; 95% CI: -1.77, -0.44), and waist circumference (-0.83 cm; 95% CI: -1.29, -0.37). Among prospective cohort studies, LCS intake was not associated with body weight or fat mass, but was significantly associated with slightly higher BMI (0.03; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.06).
CONCLUSIONS:The current meta-analysis provides a rigorous evaluation of the scientific evidence on LCSs and body weight and composition. Findings from observational studies showed no association between low-calorie sweeteners intake and body weight or fat mass and a small positive association with BMI;
however, data from RCTs, which provide the highest quality of evidence for examining the potentially causal effects of LCS intake, indicate that substituting  
low-calorie sweeteners options for their regular-calorie versions results in a modest weight loss and may be a useful dietary tool to improve compliance with weight loss or weight maintenance plans.

 According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, potassium benzoate is "generally recognized as safe" and
approved for use as a preservative as well as a flavoring agent.
Adding just a small amount can help prevent the growth of mold, yeast and certain bacteria in foods.

This UNHEALTHY FOODS article totally missed identifying the MALTODEXTRIN: (Glycerin is another name for Glycerol(GI=5) )

Questions? info@MarinInfo.org